||While the market introduction plans for the Mustang in the U.S. were under
consideration, Ford already intended to export the new Pony car to Europe, especially when
thinking of the potential customers among the US forces staff there. For example in 1965
132.000 cars were registered for US army staff in Germany only.
The design studies of the Mustang were very well accepted in Europe, too. One of the first convertibles with a scheduled build code of 05C (5th. March) was sold to an Englishman on the 8th. of April. But in Germany - as already stated - the main interest of Ford went to the US forces staff.
In July 1965 Ford announced even to start production in the Netherlands and started indeed production in September 1965 in the Amsterdam Ford factory. But that is another story and has nothing to do with T 5s.
Unfortunately Ford had some initial problems in marketing the Mustang in
The name rights applied until 31.12.1978, so all Mustang I and Mustang II versions and
even early 79 models (built until Dec. 78) exported to Germany had to be sold under the
name T5. 6 of these '79 models are located, but only one documented so far.
However the two companies Krupp and Kreidler were cooperative at the starting point.
The 2 German companies initially asked for a fee of 10.000 $ for the name rights, but Ford
rejected to pay this amount. You can bet that the total amount Ford finally invested for
conversion, printing different documentation etc. summed up for an even higher amount.
Two types of T 5s have proved to be authentic according to original and present owners. Military staff stationed in Germany could order their T 5 through the military PX (or POE?)-system. As those cars were exported with a guaranteed free of charge return to the U.S. upon the foreign duties end, some of the conversions except for the Mustang name elimination were not performed consistantly and differed to those T 5s sold to German citizens. German citizens ordering a T 5 however received more consistent converted cars.
The - call-it - U.S. staff T 5 types especially were equipped with a mp/h speedometer, German civilians received a km/h-speedometer. A km/h-speedometer was necessary for some of the european countries, too, so it is no unique identification mark for T 5s. For the km/h speedometers a 200km/h range is typical for 64 1/2 to 68, however a 220km/h range was used for Shelby cars of all years as well as 71 to 73 T 5s. 74 to 79 models received typically a 180km/h speedometer (or 200km/h) due to the reduced power from 1973 on. For details on tachs see the attached parts list.
The T5 name rights applied only for Germany at that time, not other european countries, however there are some reported inconsistencies:
A 70 T5 (from Rod Hetzel,Texas) was delivered with T5 ID plates listed on the original invoice to Luxembourg. It is assumed that sometimes T5 have been ordered by the Overseas distribution center of Ford in Cologne (Germany) but finally upon order were delivered to neighbouring countries.
So far all known T5s have only been built at the Dearborn and Metuchen factories.
As all late 65 and later Dearborn and Metuchen built cars usually have a body buck tag on the inner right or left fender or beside the cowl under the right fender on 71-73 Dearborn Mustangs, the buck tag is one of the best items to start identification of a real T5, however also here inconsistencies have been found.
64 1/2 through 66 T5s are tagged with an X (for export) only on the body tag, 68 T5s have a tag with "X W. GERMNY T5", on 70s to 74s a "T5" or also a "X T5 W Germny" was found on their ID tags or buck tag. In one case a 70 has been confirmed with only a 95 on the buck tag to be a T5 through its history.
|DSO-Codes (Domestic or District Sales Order)||Usually DSOs of 90 to 95 can be accepted for T5s, with only one 96 beeing reported of a
70 T5. 99 has been found in most cases on New Zealand cars. Note that 90 to 98 DSO have
been reported also of other countries throughout the world, so it is no clear
identification for T5s, only for export cars.
It's obvious from the T-5 registry that DSOs for export cars changed upward almost every 2-3 months, especially for 90-94. DSO 95 was used for the last months of the year, which means for the new model. However there are also some inconsistencies in this matter.
Kevin Marti expressed his opinion on our research that the DSO are not country-related, but sales volume oriented. Means a country could obtain a higher DSO between 90 and 99, if the volume grew over the year. A very logical explanation. Looking at the actual Ford files from 1967 onward revealed that the total number of a DSO like e.g. 94 has no relation to the T-5s exported. T-5s can be very clearly identified from the Ford database, so it becomes apparent that the DSO is not related to one country only.
Which will tell other registrys also that with a DSO code only, you cannot relate to a specific country.
| Literature (Owners
Early T 5s for US forces members received an english owners manual with a stamp
"In consideration of trademark rights - T5"
Of most of the early years both english and German language special
T 5 brochures have
been found, another indication that two target groups (military staff & German
speeking citizens) were approached. This sales material however leads in some cases to
discrepancies, as the pictures and the text often vary obiously from the verified real
options. One example is the T 5 badging on the photos. While the 67 brochure shows the
rectangular 65/66 T 5 style badge, in reality from 67 on (to 79) the GT style badge was
The necessary conversion caused many headaches to the tooling companies and suppliers of Ford.
European roads were said to be a little bit harsher - that's why at least for the 65/66 T5s the suspension received special attention as well as the cooling. HD shocks, springs and radiator were used in this case and a export brace strengthened the body. For later T 5 years, suspension alterations have not yet been proved to be consistent. Later T 5s with no export brace have also been verified, when the original owner was a US army staff member.
The German motor vehicle regulations also requested some conversions to be done. The single conversion items are explained later in detail.
While in 1964 the T 5 conversion items (later called T 5 package) were packed into the trunk to be installed by the
dealer, from 1965 this procedure was no longer accepted by the German authorities and
conversions had to be done on the assembly line. That explains why mostly T-5s
were produced in a batch, still there might be exemptions in case of special or
"Mustang" name and T 5-emblems (medallion)
The Mustang name elimination, which included for example different gas caps and wheel covers on early T5s was a real task for both the tool suppliers and Ford itself. Fender holes had to be punched on all models in another way and steering caps had to be altered. A 64 1/2 T 5 e.g. was found with a flexed steering wheel cap. The Mustang wording has just been scratched away, a consequence of the dealer instruction, which somebody followed in an unusual way.
Still there is some fighting about the early T5 emblems: One theory is that the 64 1/2 T5s were equipped with a rectangular fender emblem made of plastic, derivated from the rear fender Comet emblem. This special interim emblem can be seen on early Ford Cologne press photos as well as in some T5 literature. In 65 and 66 metal rectangular fender emblems were used with the engineering no. embossed on the back.
The reason might be that Ford did not have ready to go T5-emblems, when the production began. The metal T5 sign also carries a C5 engineering no., underlining probably the a.m. theory.
From 1967 on through to early 1979 another fender emblem was used, which had a similar shape like the 66 GT badge.
On 68 T5s also the rear decklids were delivered without the Mustang lettering, and both 67s and 68s had a rectangular dash emblem instead of the word Mustang and on the fender additional Ford letters beside the T5 emblem.
69 and 70 T5s have the Ford letters above the T5 emblem.
The 71-73 also had a special T5 (T-Five) dash emblem, but only a T5 emblem on the
fenders without Ford letters.
German motor vehicle regulations resulted in a broad range of different T 5 equipment
Usually a locking system attached to the steering column had to be installed. Evidence
for this special dealer installed device had been found on some 66 and 67 T5s so far. Also
it is pictured and described in the German edition of the owner manual of a 65 (Gary
Hanson has one). The device is mounted on the right side of the steering column and
replaces the original ignition key switch. Wiring was changed to the steering column
attaced key switch device, which has an additional lock position called
"Garage". In this position the key mechanically locks the steering column by a
metal insert piece, which locks into a bored whole of the steering column itself. When
inserted the steering wheel cannot be moved. The "new" ignition switch replaced
the US type ign. switch, but this one was left in place. The wiring was retrofitted to the
"new" one. It is reported to be used with Ford keys, therefore seems to be a
Some of the other necessary changes referred to the headlights. As the "sealed-beam" U.S. headlight type was and still is not allowed by German motor vehicle regulations, the headlight configuration had to be completely exchanged. The German headlight set-up included new bulbs and rubber caps and for some model years also new ring retainers.
All of the real T5s should have changed headlights (from 1970 H4-light was used) and amber outside turn indicator lamps, because amber bulbs with white lenses - as used on the 67/68 Mustangs - were not allowed in those years.
In addition the wiring
for the turn lamps had to be altered, because the parking lamp function was not accepted
within the turn indicator lamp. Last but not least the inside turn indicator foil had to
be changed usually to a red foil depending on the model year, as was regulated during
those days. The far-light indicator usually had to be changed to a blue one instead of a
red one for U.S.
For the necessary emergency flasher set up, different solutions have been found. While
some early T5s received a complete new flasher set-up with a special add-on package
(typically from BOSCH). Later T 5s used the factory installed steering column switch,
however sometimes different red control lenses at the dash cluster had to be retrofitted,
because at some places the motor vehicle inspection authorities required this. The German
regulations requested a big red emergency flasher control lens to be installed. On earlier
types this light was included most often in the switch, which was mounted in most cases on
the left lower dash part.
The U.S. type of the rear single-bulb housing with integrated bi(tri)-function for
stop-(driving)light and turn light was usually not allowed on German and maybe other
European roads. Specifically the shut-off of the stop-light during cornering has been
critical for the approval engineers, although we must admit today that everything depended
upon the relationship between the dealer and the authorities, so only few T 5s have been
found with these alterations. In order to meet the requirement the housing was in some
cases bored and a bracket made for a second bulb. In other cases the same Ford bulb holder
as original used had been used, if available. In that case only a hole had to be bored the
same size as the original besides it. These alterations are more often reported of later
T 5s than of the early 64 1/2 to 66 T 5s.
The turn indicating light had usually to be wired separately from the fuse box
rearward. The separate fuse and wiring is still mandatory today, although depending on
TÜV-relationship (Technical Surveillance Institution), too. In most cases this extra
wiring went hand in hand with an additional emergency flasher set up.
Different solutions have been found for the later side marker lamp. While the official Ford instructions (e.g. for 70 T 5) requested to paint the side marker lamps as well as the sports lamps on 71-73s black and dismount the bulbs, some cars could pass despite this regulations with their regular side illumination.
Some of the a.m. changes were also required for self-imported cars, so real
T 5s also
need the badging or buck tag mark. In connection with the right DSO 90-95(96) and other
marks it is part of the identification.
Some early T 5s had towing brackets fixed to the front frame rails on both sides. The towing brackets are usually also demanded by the German regulations, however have not been found on all T 5s.
Although especially later T 5 literature stated disc brakes as a standard equipment, many T 5s have been reported with drum brakes, especially those from U.S. staff.
Autobahn flasher set ups have been found on some European cars, but were not typical
for T 5s. The tilt-steering wheel option is reported to be a no-go for T 5s during that
days, however speed control equipment has been found on some T 5s, although sometimes
altered to a flasher-set-up.
Exact number of T 5s (for '67-73 unearthed (April 99, reported by Gary Hanson)
Thanks to Kevin Marti from Marti Auto Works we finally got a more detailed picture of the T 5 numbers produced in 1967-1973. Kevin has bought from Ford Motor Company their computerized production datas and due to a good connection with Gary Hanson and our club offered the relevant information free of charge..
As 65/66-datas were definitely lost by Ford, we still have the numbers only for the period from 67-73.
Gary Hanson, the T 5-registry owner in the US, estimates that about 500 T 5s have been exported in 65 and again in 66.
The magazine Hobby stated in its October 66 issue that from the sales start in 64 up to April 66 2500 Mustangs had been sold to Germans and 1000 to swiss people, but this might have been also a Ford promotion figure to hide correct sales figures, which were not really good.
Following are the official figures for Ford US cars registrated in Germany. Be aware that they do not contain the US army staff owned Fords.
Today about 300 (45 in Germany) are still on the roads.
68 Dash emblem
link to parts list
|Questions or Registering||Mail to T 5 german registrar
or in the US to Gary Hanson