The T-5 History on
Written originally in 1993 for the FMCoGermany 1964-1973, now hosted on my own website
Author: Wolfgang Kohrn                                                Updated September 01, 2019

T-5 > Mustang incognito

The Mustang was built as a T-5 from April 1964 - Dez. 1978, © Wolfgang Kohrn / T-5-Registry (co-registrar with Gary Hanson - based in Germany

While the market introduction plans for the Mustang in the U.S. were under consideration, Ford already intended to export the new Pony car to Europe, especially when thinking of the potential customers among the US forces staff there.
The market volume was recognised by Ford: Statistics shows us that in 1965 132.000 cars were registered for US army staff members in Germany only.

The design studies of the Mustang were very well accepted in Europe, too. One of the first convertibles with a scheduled build code of 05C (5th. March) was sold to an Englishman on the 8th. of April already. But in Germany - as already stated - the main interest of Ford went to the US forces staff.
In July 1965 Ford announced even to begin production in the Netherlands and started it indeed  in September 1965 in the Amsterdam Ford factory.
But that is another story and has nothing to do with T-5s.

Secret Mission   
kreidler.jpg (16457 Byte)

1956 Krupp Mustang

1958 Krupp Mustang

Unfortunately Ford had some initial problems in marketing the Mustang in Germany. 
The company Krupp - beside other company activities being a truck manufacturer - produced 7 or 8 different truck versions with the name Mustang from 1951 to 1964. In total 6170 Mustang trucks were manufactured. In 1968 Krupp quit the truck business.

Kreidler, a German manufacturer of small motor bikes, owned the Mustang name rights, too.
A Kreidler Mustang motorbike (small one) was built from 1974 - 1975, 3198 pieces to be exact.

The small motorbike for grow-ups was developped as a derivative of the Kreidler Florett and appeared in special off-road design with an upwards curved exhaust, higher levelled steering, driver only seat and higher front wheel cover.
A shorter transmission ratio, a bigger wheel in front (2.50-19) compared to the Florett enabled the Mustang bike to be as fast as 85km/h (50mp/h). The weight was 80kg, a 5 gear transmission carried 6,25PS at 8500 rpm to the rear wheel.
The price was DM 2270,- (approx. 650$ at that time. In 1975 the single seater was changed to a double seater to accomodate the kids girlfriends and a tach as well as bigger RS-brakes accomodated the driver. In addition more streetdrivable tires made the ride more comfortable.

The name rights applied until 31.12.1978, so all Ford Mustang I and Mustang II versions and even early 79 models (built until Dec. 78) exported to Germany had to be sold under the name T5.
A number of these '79 models are located, and some are documented in detail.

"T5" - as you might remember - was the initial project name of Ford for the Mustang. T-5s received a special handling within Ford and are rare finds as of today, though their value has mostly only increased for the early ones compared to the "normal" Mustang.

The two companies Krupp and Kreidler were cooperative at the starting point. The 2 German companies initially asked for a fee of 10.000 $ for the name rights, but Ford rejected to pay this amount.
You can bet that the total amount Ford finally invested for conversion, printing different documentation, manuals and emblems etc. summed up for a much higher amount.

Two types of T-5 

Two types of T-5s have proved to be authentic according to original and present owners. Military staff stationed in Germany could order their T-5 through the military PX-system.
As those cars were exported with a guaranteed free of charge return to the U.S. upon the foreign duties end, some of the conversions except for the Mustang name elimination were not performed consistantly and differed to those T-5s sold to German citizens.

German citizens ordering a T-5 received more consistent converted cars.

The - let's call-it - U.S. staff T-5 types were equipped with a mp/h speedometer, german civilians received a km/h-speedometer built in their car with specific part nos.
But a km/h-speedometer was necessary for some of the european countries, too, so it is no unique identification mark for T- 5s.
Looking at the variety of km/h speedometers a 200km/h range is typical for 64 1/2 to 68, however a 220km/h range was used for Shelby cars of all years as well as 71 to 73 T-5s.
1974 to 1979 models received typically a 180km/h speedometer (or 200km/h) due to the reduced power from 1973 on. For details on tachs see the linked parts list.


 Original T-5 (US Forces Staff Type)  

The T-5 name usage for the Mustang applied only for Germany at that time, not other european countries, however there are some reported inconsistencies:

A 70 T5 (from Rod Hetzel,Texas) was delivered with T-5 ID plates listed on the original invoice to Luxembourg. It is assumed that sometimes T-5 have been ordered by the overseas distribution center of Ford in Cologne (Germany) but finally upon order were delivered to neighbouring countries.
Over the decades we have found a few more cars that were ordered as T-5s (with the related package shown on the Marti Report, but history revealed that the car had been finally delivered to another country. Of course this could happen, wenn the ordering person was transferred to a new location or the order was cancelled and the car routed for another order just to fulfill the other order.

So far all known T-5s have only been built at the Dearborn and Metuchen factories.

As all late 1965 and later Dearborn and Metuchen built cars usually have a body buck tag on the inner right or left fender or beside the cowl under the right fender on 71-73 Dearborn Mustangs, the buck tag is one of the best items to start identification of a real T-5, however also here inconsistencies have been found.

64 1/2 through 66 T5s are tagged with an X (for export) only on the body tag, 68 T5s have a tag with "X W. GERMNY T5", on 70s to 74s a "T5" or also a "X T5 W Germny" was found on their ID tags or buck tag. In one case a 70 has been confirmed with only a 95 on the buck tag to be a T5 through its history.

Here is a window sticker of Steve Welch 1965 T-5 Fastback

For a long time we had been convinced that for T-5 styled steel wheels were not available due to letters between Ray McCaffee and Ford USA.
Ford turned him officially down that he could not get them. However we have found meanwhile 2 early T-5s which got them
Steve Welchs.


 DSO-Codes (Domestic or District Sales Order) Usually DSOs of 90 to 95 can be accepted for T-5s, with only one 96 beeing reported of a 70 T-5. 99 has been found in most cases on New Zealand cars. Note that 90 to 98 DSO have been reported also of other countries throughout the world, so it is no clear identification for T-5s, only for export cars. 
It's obvious from the T-5 registry that DSOs for export cars changed upward almost every 2-3 months, especially for 90-94. DSO 95 was used for the last monthes of the year, which means for the new model. However there are also some inconsistencies in this matter.
Kevin Marti expressed his opinion on our research that the DSO are not country-related, but sales volume oriented. Means a country could obtain a higher DSO between 90 and 99, if the volume grew over the year. A very logical explanation. Looking at the actual Ford files from 1967 onward revealed that the total number of a DSO like e.g. 94 has no relation to the T-5s exported. T-5s from 1967 onwards can be very clearly identified from the Ford database, so it becomes apparent that the DSO is not related to one country only.
Which will tell other registrys also that with a DSO code only, you cannot relate to a specific country. Since a few years (as of 2019) there is a larger Export registry growing taken care of in France, if you are looking for other export cars than german, they may have more explanations on certain specials.
 Literature (Owners manuals)



Early T-5s for US forces members received an english owners manual with a stamp on it that was "In consideration of trademark rights - T5" 

From 1966 on the owners manual was printed in german (most probably in Cologne/Germany) and with the T-5 titled on it. 


 Brochures T 5  

Of most of the early years both english and German language special T-5 brochures have been found, another indication that two target groups (military staff & German speeking citizens) were approached. This sales material however leads in some cases to discrepancies, as the pictures and the text often vary obiously from the verified real T-5 options. One example is the T-5 badging on the photos.
While the 67 brochure shows the rectangular 65/66 T-5 style badge, in reality from 67 on (to 79) the GT style badge was used.

 Conversions |

The necessary conversion caused many headaches to the tooling companies and suppliers of Ford.

European roads were said to be a little bit harsher - that's why at least for the 65/66 T-5s the suspension received special attention as well as the cooling.
HD shocks, springs and radiator were used in this case and a export brace strengthened the body. For later T-5 model years, suspension alterations have not yet been proved to be consistent. Later T-5s with no export brace have also been verified, when the original owner was a US army staff member. One example is my own 1968 T-5, ordered through the PX system..

The German motor vehicle regulations also requested some conversions to be done. The single conversion items are explained later in detail.

While in 1964 the T-5 conversion items (later called T-5 package) were simply put into the trunk to be installed by the dealer, from 1965 this procedure was no longer accepted by the German authorities and conversions had to be done on the assembly line. That explains why mostly T-5s were produced in a batch, still there might be exemptions in case of special or urgent orders.

Ford Overseas department also provided conversion instructions for the dealers for getting road approval, not to mix up with the T-5 package ex-factory. 

This instruction paper includes detailed drawings and descriptions of lighting equipment, parking brake system alterations etc. to meet the restrictive german road approval regulations. We do have a copy of the 1970 version, unfortunately not yet from the other models.


 Deleted "Mustang" name and T 5-emblems (medallion)

The Mustang name elimination, which included for example different gas caps and wheel covers on early T5s was a real task for both the tool suppliers and Ford itself. Fender holes had to be punched on all models in another way and steering caps had to be altered. A 64 1/2 T 5 e.g. was found with a flexed steering wheel cap. The Mustang wording has just been scratched away, a consequence of the dealer instruction, which somebody followed in an unusual way.

Still there is some discussion ongoing about the early T-5 emblems:
One theory is that the very early 64 1/2 T-5s were equipped with a rectangular fender emblem made of plastic, derivated from the rear fender Comet emblem.
This special interim emblem can be seen on early Ford Cologne press photos as well as in some T5 literature. Later on - at the end of 1964 a specfific metal emblem was delivered with the car (we have reports that they were not mounted in some cases) where the T-5 letters were not centered, but a bit off-center. Some of these have been found meanwhile.
With the beginning of 1965 and through 66 metal rectangular fender emblems were used with the engineering no. embossed on the back. 

The reason might be that Ford did not have ready to go T-5-emblems, when the production began. The metal T-5 sign also carries a C5 engineering no., strengthening the above mentioned theory.

From 1967 on through to early 1979 another fender emblem was used, which had a similar shape like the 66 GT badge. Of this badge there are 2 versions known - as we heard - from 2 different suppliers, the later one has some slight differences in the crown and the exact location of the mounting pins, so both are not really interchangeable..

On 68 T5s also the rear decklids were delivered without the Mustang lettering, and both 67s and 68s had a rectangular passenger dash emblem instead of the word Mustang. 
On the fender additional 66 Ford hood letters were used next to the T-5 emblem.

1969 and 70 T-5s have the Ford letters above the T5 emblem.

The 71-73 also had a special T-5 (written as T-Five) dash emblem depending on console equipment, but only a T-5 emblem on the fenders without Ford letters.


German motor vehicle regulations resulted in a broad range of different T 5 equipment

Usually a locking system attached to the steering column had to be installed. Evidence for this special dealer installed device had been found on some 1966 and 67 T5s so far. Also it is pictured and described in the German edition of the owner manual of a 1965.
The device is mounted on the right side of the steering column and replaces the original ignition key switch. Wiring was changed to the steering column attaced key switch device, which has an additional lock position called "Garage". In this position the key mechanically locks the steering column by a metal insert piece, which locks into a bored whole of the steering column itself. When inserted the steering wheel cannot be moved.
The "new" ignition switch replaced the US type ign. switch, but this one was left in place. The wiring was retrofitted to the "new" one. It is reported to be used with Ford keys, therefore seems to be a Ford part.

Some of the other necessary changes referred to the headlights. As the "sealed-beam" U.S. headlight type was and still is not allowed by German motor vehicle regulations, the headlight configuration had to be completely exchanged. The German headlight set-up included new bulbs and rubber caps and for some model years also new ring retainers. 

All of the real T-5s should have changed headlights (from 1970 H4-light was used) and amber outside turn indicator lamps, because amber bulbs with white lenses - as used on some of the 67/68 Mustangs - were not allowed in those years.

In addition the wiring for the turn lamps had to be altered, because the parking lamp function was not accepted within the turn indicator lamp. From 1970 on the turn indicating light also had to be separated from the braking light and fused separatedly as well.
Last but not least the inside turn indicator foil had to be changed usually to a red foil depending on the model year, as was regulated during those days. The far-light indicator usually had to be changed to a blue one instead of a red one for U.S.

For the necessary emergency flasher set up, different solutions have been found. While some early T5s received a complete new flasher set-up with a special add-on package (typically from BOSCH). Later T-5s used the factory installed steering column switch, however sometimes different red control lenses at the dash cluster had to be retrofitted, because at some places the motor vehicle inspection authorities required this. The German regulations requested a big red emergency flasher control lens to be installed. On earlier types this light was included most often in the switch, which was mounted in most cases on the left lower dash part.
Rules dictated that the emergency flasher system was fused separately and the lights independendent from the brake light. There are not enough cars in an original state to proove one verson as the original one. Dealers got creative with the independency of the local TUEV road approval stations.

The U.S. type of the rear single-bulb housing with integrated bi(tri)-function for stop-(driving)light and turn light was usually not allowed on German and maybe other European roads. Specifically the shut-off of the stop-light during cornering has been critical for the approval engineers, although we must admit today that everything depended upon the relationship between the dealer and the authorities, so only few T 5s have been found with these alterations. In order to meet the requirement the housing was in some cases bored and a bracket made for a second bulb. In other cases the same Ford bulb holder as original used had been used, if available. In that case only a hole had to be bored the same size as the original besides it. These alterations are more often reported of later T 5s than of the early 64 1/2 to 66 T 5s.
The turn indicating light had usually to be wired separately from the fuse box rearward. The separate fuse and wiring is still mandatory today, although depending on TÜV-relationship (Technical Surveillance Institution), too. In most cases this extra wiring went hand in hand with an additional emergency flasher set up.

Different solutions have been found for the later side marker lamp. While the official Ford instructions (e.g. for 70 T-5) requested to paint the side marker lamps as well as the sports lamps on 71-73s black and dismount the bulbs, some cars could pass despite this regulations with their regular side illumination.

1971 and 1972 T-5s have some welded on metal stiffeners in the rear axle bump area.

Some of the a.m. changes were also required for self-imported cars, so real T-5s also need the badging or buck tag mark. In connection with the right DSO 90-95(96) and other marks it is part of the identification.


 Rare alterations

Some early T-5s had towing brackets fixed to the front frame rails on both sides. The towing brackets are usually also demanded by the German regulations, however have not been found on all T-5s.

Although especially later T-5 literature stated disc brakes as a standard equipment, many T-5s have been reported with drum brakes, especially those from U.S. staff.

Autobahn flasher set ups have been found on some European cars, but were not typical for T-5s. The tilt-steering wheel option is reported to be a no-go for T- 5s during that days, however speed control equipment has been found on some T-5s, although sometimes altered to a flasher-set-up. In the past 5 years we also found a prooven T-5 with the tilt-steering wheel listed on the Marti report, so consistency of rules was not Ford strength in those years.

Smog equipment is a good question. We have not found any T-5 with original smog equipment so far.


 Exact number of T-5s (for '67-73 unearthed (April 99, reported by Gary Hanson)

Thanks to Kevin Marti from Marti Auto Works we finally got a more detailed picture of the T 5 numbers produced in 1967-1973. Kevin has bought from Ford Motor Company their computerized production datas and due to a good connection with Gary Hanson and our club offered the relevant information free of charge..

As 65/66-datas were definitely lost by Ford, we still have the numbers only for the period from 67-73.

Model Year
































Gary Hanson, the T-5-registry owner  in the US, estimated for decades that about 500 T-5s have been exported in 65 and again in 66.

The magazine Hobby stated in its October 66 issue that from the sales start in 64 up to April 66 2500 Mustangs had been sold to Germans and 1000 to swiss people, but this might have been also a Ford promotion figure to hide correct sales figures, which were not really good.

Following are the official figures for Ford US cars registrated in Germany. Be aware that they do not contain the US army staff owned Fords.

1964 234
1966 624
1967 382
1969 401
1970 564 (601)
1971 461

Today about 350 (55 in Germany) are still on the roads.


 T-5 special parts

68 Dash emblem
Part number Z7ZB - 6504460 - A FoMoCo


link to parts list
 Questions or Registering Mail to T-5 german co-registrar Wolfgang Kohrn
or in the US to Gary Hanson. If you do or did not get an answer...Gary had a problem with his mail in 2019. Check back with us more often.